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I have been thinking on the “scratches”. In the walking dead show, has anyone actually died from a scratch? I don’t think anyone has. The scratch idea is more of a fear that has become truth to them.
As for bites, I agree with the idea of a kind of venom or bacteria that is instantly created when a body turns. Alive humans are highly allergic to it and will die from expositor. Kind of like a peanut allergy.